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The basic composition of the car

2021-06-25 Page view : 236 views

A car generally consists of four basic parts: engine, chassis, body, and electrical equipment.

1. Automobile engine: The engine is the power plant of the automobile. It is composed of 2 major mechanisms and 5 major systems: crank and connecting rod mechanism, valve mechanism, cooling system, fuel supply system, lubrication system, ignition system, and starting system. The gasoline engine lacks an ignition system.

1. Cooling system: generally composed of water tank, water pump, radiator, fan, thermostat, water temperature meter and water drain switch. The automobile engine adopts two kinds of cooling methods, namely air cooling and water cooling. Generally, car engines are mostly cooled by water.

2. Lubrication system: The engine lubrication system consists of an oil pump, a strainer, an oil filter, an oil passage, a pressure limiting valve, an oil gauge, a pressure sensing plug and an oil dipstick.

3. Fuel supply system:

The fuel system of a gasoline engine includes a gasoline tank, a gasoline gauge, a gasoline pipe, a gasoline filter, a gasoline pump, a carburetor, an air filter, etc.

Diesel engine fuel system includes main components such as fuel injection pump, fuel injector and governor# and auxiliary devices such as diesel tank, fuel transfer pump, oil-water separator, diesel filter, fuel injection advancer and high and low pressure fuel pipes.

4. Starting system: starter, battery.

5. Ignition system: spark plug, high voltage wire, high voltage coil, distributor, ignition switch.

6. Crank connecting rod mechanism: connecting rod, crankshaft, bearing bush, flywheel, piston, piston ring, piston pin, crankshaft oil seal.

7. Air distribution mechanism: cylinder head, valve cover camshaft, valve intake manifold, exhaust manifold, air filter, muffler, three-way catalytic supercharger.

2. Automobile Chassis: The function of the chassis is to support and install the assembly of the automobile engine and its various components, forming the overall shape of the automobile, and receiving the power of the engine to make the automobile move and ensure normal driving. The chassis is composed of four parts: drive train, driving train, steering train and braking train.

1. Drive train: The power from the car engine is transmitted to the driving wheels by the drive train. The drive train has the functions of deceleration, shifting, reversing, power interruption, inter-wheel differential and inter-axle differential. Working with the engine, it can ensure the normal driving of the car under various working conditions, and has good power and performance. Economy. It is mainly composed of clutch, transmission, universal joint, transmission shaft and drive axle.

Clutch: Its function is to smoothly engage or temporarily separate the power of the engine and the transmission, so that the driver can start, stop, and shift the car.

Transmission: It is composed of transmission housing, transmission cover, first shaft, second shaft, intermediate shaft, reverse shaft, gears, bearings and operating mechanism, etc. It is used for automobile speed change and output torque change.

2. Driving system: It is composed of frame, axle, suspension and wheels. The functions of the driving system are:

a. Accept the power of the drive train, and generate traction through the action of the driving wheels and the road surface, so that the car can drive normally.

b. Withstand the total weight of the car and the reaction force of the ground.

c. Alleviate the impact of uneven roads on the body, attenuate the vibration of the car in driving, and maintain the smoothness of driving.

d. Cooperate with the steering system to ensure the steering stability of the car.

3. Steering system: The special mechanism used on a car to change or restore its driving direction is called the car steering system. The basic composition of the steering system

a. The steering mechanism is mainly composed of steering wheel, steering shaft and steering column.

b. Steering gear, a mechanism that changes the rotation of the steering wheel into the swing of the steering rocker arm or the linear reciprocating motion of the rack shaft, and amplifies the steering force. The steering gear is generally fixed on the car frame or body, and the steering control force generally changes the transmission direction after passing through the steering gear.

c. The steering transmission mechanism transmits the force and motion output by the steering gear to the wheels (steering knuckle), and makes the left and right wheels deflect according to a certain relationship.
Steel Plate Mould
4. Braking system: A series of special devices used to make the outside world (mainly the road surface) exert a certain force on certain parts of the car (mainly the wheels), so as to perform a certain degree of forced braking on it, collectively called the braking system . Its function is: to make the driving car decelerate or even stop according to the driver’s requirements; to make the stopped car park stably under various road conditions (including on the ramp); to keep the speed of the car driving downhill stable.

Braking system classification:

a. According to the function of the braking system  

The brake system can be divided into service brake system, parking brake system, emergency brake system and auxiliary brake system. The braking system used to slow down the speed of a moving car or even stop is called a service brake system; the braking system used to make a stopped car park in place is called a parking brake system; When the service brake system fails, the brake system that guarantees that the car can still decelerate or stop is called the emergency brake system; during the driving process, the auxiliary service brake system reduces the speed or keeps the speed stable, but cannot make the vehicle emergency The braking system that stops is called the auxiliary braking system. Among the above-mentioned brake systems, the service brake system and the parking brake system are necessary for every car.

b. Manipulate energy by braking

Braking systems can be divided into human braking systems, dynamic braking systems and servo braking systems. A braking system that uses the driver’s body as a braking energy source is called a human braking system; a system that completely relies on the potential energy in the form of air pressure or hydraulic pressure converted from the power of the engine to perform braking is called a dynamic braking system; The braking system that uses human power and engine power to brake is called a servo braking system or a power-assisted braking system.

c. According to the transmission method of braking energy

Braking systems can be divided into mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic and electromagnetic, etc. Simultaneously adopting two kinds of braking systems by means of uploading energy is called a combined braking system.

The brake system is generally composed of two main parts, the brake operating mechanism and the brake.


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